Equity typically referred to as shareholders' equity (or owners equity' for privately held companies), represents the amount of money that would be returned to a company's shareholders if all of the assets were liquidated and all of the company's debt was paid off in the case of liquidation. In the case of acquisition, it is the value of company sale minus any liabilities owed by the company not transferred with the sale.
In addition, shareholder equity can represent the book value of a company. Equity can sometimes be offered as payment-in-kind. It also represents the pro-rata ownership of a company's shares.
Equity can be found on a company's balance sheet and is one of the most common pieces of data employed by analysts to assess the financial health of a company.